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四大自由:罗斯福总统感召美国的演说

news.xixik.com   2007-9-19 16:04:23 资讯来源:嘻嘻网   字号控制:[ ]
核心提示:罗斯福总统的演说成为人们所熟知的“四大自由”演说,因为那一天罗斯福阐明了这个国家力争捍卫的各项权利——言论自由、宗教自由、不虞匮乏的自由和免于恐惧的自由。罗斯福指出,这些自由不仅是美国人民应当享有的,而且是全世界人民应当享有的。

“……我们期盼一个建立在人类四项基本自由之上的世界。第一是言论和表达的自由──全世界任何地方都有。第二是每个人以自己的方式敬拜上帝的自由──全世界任何地方都有。第三是不虞匮乏的自由……全世界任何地方都有。第四是免于恐惧的自由……全世界任何地方都有。

——富兰克林?罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt), 1941年1月6日

1941年,全世界很多地区都落入暴政的魔爪。法西斯意大利兼并了埃塞俄比亚。日本已入侵中国。纳粹德国征服了挪威、丹麦、荷兰、比利时和法国,并准备举兵进犯英国。

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美国总统富兰克林?罗斯福当时刚刚建议向英国提供援助,但他知道许多美国人坚持认为他们的国家不应卷入这场冲突。罗斯福决定向美国人民以及全世界人民说明为什么有必要抗击进犯行径。

1941年1月6日,罗斯福总统向美国国会和美国人民提出了以下构想。他阐述了美国和其他民主国家所面临的威胁,并阐明了一个人人享有基本人权的和平、安全及民主的前景。

罗斯福总统的演说成为人们所熟知的“四大自由”演说,因为那一天罗斯福阐明了这个国家力争捍卫的各项权利——言论自由、宗教自由、不虞匮乏的自由和免于恐惧的自由。罗斯福指出,这些自由不仅是美国人民应当享有的,而且是全世界人民应当享有的。他承诺,这“不是遥远的千年愿景,而是我们这个时代和我们这一代人能够实现的一种世界的坚实基础”。

各个国家和人民都以罗斯福的四大自由为感召,重建战后的世界。1948年联合国通过的《世界人权宣言》( Universal Declaration of Human Rights)以及其他保障基本自由的文件也都受到罗斯福这篇演说的影响。

今天,美国人民继续建设罗斯福所构想的世界,即任何地方的人民都能自由地发表言论、自由地祈祷、不虞匮乏、免于恐惧的世界。

“正如在国内事务上,我们的国策一直以充分尊重所有同胞的权利和尊严为基础,在对外事务上,我们的国策也一直基于充分尊重不分大小的所有国家的权利和尊严。”

——富兰克林?罗斯福总统, 1941年1月6日

英文版:

"...We look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and of expression — everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship god in his own way — everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want ... everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear ... anywhere in the world."

- Franklin D. Roosevelt, 6th January 1941

In 1941, tyranny gripped much of the world. Fascist Italy had annexed Ethiopia. Japan had invaded China. Nazi Germany had conquered Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium and France and stood poised to invade Great Britain.

U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had recently proposed sending aid to Great Britain, but knew many Americans felt strongly that their nation should stay out of the conflict. Roosevelt decided to explain to Americans and to all the peoples of the world why resisting aggression was necessary.

Roosevelt offered this vision to the U.S. Congress and the American people on January 6, 1941. The president described the threat to the United States and other democratic nations and enunciated a vision of a peaceful, secure, democratic world in which individuals would enjoy fundamental human rights.

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President Roosevelt’s words became known as the “Four Freedoms” speech, for on that day FDR enunciated the rights which the nation would defend—freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want and freedom from fear. These, Roosevelt explained, were not just for Americans, but for all peoples. This was “no vision of a distant millennium,” he promised. “It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation.”

Nations and peoples would look to Roosevelt’s four freedoms as they built the postwar world. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948, and other instruments guaranteeing fundamental freedoms bear the imprint of Roosevelt’s speech.

Today, Americans continue to build the world Roosevelt envisioned, a world where people everywhere are free to speak and to pray, free from want and from fear.

"Just as our national policy in internal affairs has been based upon a decent respect for the rights and the dignity of all our fellow men, so our national policy in foreign affairs has been based on a decent respect for the rights and dignity of all nations, large and small.”

- President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 6th January 1941

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